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California Lemon Law

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California Lemon Law Statutes

California Lemon Law CIVIL CODE

SECTION 1790-1790.4

olol 1790. This chapter may be cited as the "Song-Beverly Consumer Warranty Act."

1790.1. Any waiver by the buyer of consumer goods of the provisions of this chapter, except as expressly provided in this chapter, shall be deemed contrary to public policy and shall be unenforceable and void.

1790.2. If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held unconstitutional, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of this chapter which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this chapter are severable.

1790.3. The provisions of this chapter shall not affect the rights and obligations of parties determined by reference to the Commercial Code except that, where the provisions of the Commercial Code conflict with the rights guaranteed to buyers of consumer goods under the provisions of this chapter, the provisions of this chapter shall prevail.

1790.4. The remedies provided by this chapter are cumulative and shall not be construed as restricting any remedy that is otherwise available, and, in particular, shall not be construed to supplant the provisions of the Unfair Practices Act.

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California Lemon Law CIVIL CODE SECTION 1791-1791.3

California Lemon Law 1791. As used in this chapter:

  • "Consumer goods" means any new product or part thereof that is used, bought, or leased for use primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, except for clothing and consumables. "Consumer goods" shall include new and used assistive devices sold at retail.
  • "Buyer" or "retail buyer" means any individual who buys consumer goods from a person engaged in the business of manufacturing, distributing, or selling consumer goods at retail. As used in this subdivision, "person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, association, or other legal entity that engages in any of these businesses.
  • "Clothing" means any wearing apparel, worn for any purpose, including under and outer garments, shoes, and accessories composed primarily of woven material, natural or synthetic yarn, fiber, or leather or similar fabric.
  • "Consumables" means any product that is intended for consumption by individuals, or use by individuals for purposes of personal care or in the performance of services ordinarily rendered within the household, and that usually is consumed or expended in the course of consumption or use.
  • "Distributor" means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal relationship that stands between the manufacturer and the retail seller in purchases, consignments, or contracts for sale of consumer goods.
  • "Independent repair or service facility" or "independent service dealer" means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, not an employee or subsidiary of a manufacturer or distributor, that engages in the business of servicing and repairing consumer goods.
  • "Lease" means any contract for the lease or bailment for the use of consumer goods by an individual, for a term exceeding four months, primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, whether or not it is agreed that the lessee bears the risk of the consumer goods' depreciation.
  • "Lessee" means an individual who leases consumer goods under a lease.
  • "Lessor" means a person who regularly leases consumer goods under a lease.
  • "Manufacturer" means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal relationship that manufactures, assembles, or produces consumer goods.
  • "Place of business" means, for the purposes of any retail seller that sells consumer goods by catalog or mail order, the distribution point for consumer goods.
  • "Retail seller," "seller," or "retailer" means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal relationship that engages in the business of selling or leasing consumer goods to retail buyers.
  • "Return to the retail seller" means, for the purposes of any retail seller that sells consumer goods by catalog or mail order, the retail seller's place of business, as defined in subdivision (k).
  • "Sale" means either of the following:
    • The passing of title from the seller to the buyer for a price.
    • A consignment for sale.
  • "Service contract" means a contract in writing to perform, over a fixed period of time or for a specified duration, services relating to the maintenance or repair of a consumer product, except that this term does not include a policy of automobile insurance, as defined in Section 116 of the Insurance Code.
  • "Assistive device" means any instrument, apparatus, or contrivance, including any component or part thereof or accessory thereto, that is used or intended to be used, to assist an individual with a disability in the mitigation or treatment of an injury or disease or to assist or affect or replace the structure or any function of the body of an individual with a disability, except that this term does not include prescriptive lenses and other ophthalmic goods unless they are sold or dispensed to a blind person, as defined in Section 19153 of the Welfare and Institutions Code and unless they are intended to assist the limited vision of the person so disabled.
  • "Catalog or similar sale" means a sale in which neither the seller nor any employee or agent of the seller nor any person related to the seller nor any person with a financial interest in the sale participates in the diagnosis of the buyer's condition or in the selection or fitting of the device.
  • "Home appliance" means any refrigerator, freezer, range, microwave oven, washer, dryer, dishwasher, garbage disposal, trash compactor, or room air-conditioner normally used or sold for personal, family, or household purposes.
  • "Home electronic product" means any television, radio, antenna rotator, audio or video recorder or playback equipment, video camera, video game, video monitor, computer equipment, telephone, telecommunications equipment, electronic alarm system, electronic appliance control system, or other kind of electronic product, if it is normally used or sold for personal, family, or household purposes. The term includes any electronic accessory that is normally used or sold with a home electronic product for one of those purposes. The term excludes any single product with a wholesale price to the retail seller of less than fifty dollars ($50).
  • "Member of the Armed Forces" means a person on full-time active duty in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, National Guard, or Coast Guard. Full-time active duty shall also include active military service at a military service school designated by law or the Adjutant General of the Military Department concerned.

This section shall become operative on January 1, 2008.

California Lemon Law 1791.1. As used in this chapter:

  • "Implied warranty of merchantability" or "implied warranty that goods are merchantable" means that the consumer goods meet each of the following:
    • Pass without objection in the trade under the contract description.
    • Are fit for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are used.
    • Are adequately contained, packaged, and labeled.
    • Conform to the promises or affirmations of fact made on the container or label.
  • "Implied warranty of fitness" means
    • that when the retailer, distributor, or manufacturer has reason to know any particular purpose for which the consumer goods are required, and further, that the buyer is relying on the skill and judgment of the seller to select and furnish suitable goods, then there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be fit for such purpose and
  • The duration of the implied warranty of merchantability and where present the implied warranty of fitness shall be coextensive in duration with an express warranty which accompanies the consumer goods, provided the duration of the express warranty is reasonable; but in no event shall such implied warranty have a duration of less than 60 days nor more than one year following the sale of new consumer goods to a retail buyer. Where no duration for an express warranty is stated with respect to consumer goods, or parts thereof, the duration of the implied warranty shall be the maximum period prescribed above.
  • Any buyer of consumer goods injured by a breach of the implied warranty of merchantability and where applicable by a breach of the implied warranty of fitness has the remedies provided in Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 2601) and Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2701) of Division 2 of the Commercial Code, and, in any action brought under such provisions, Section 1794 of this chapter shall apply.

California Lemon Law 1791.2.

  • "Express warranty" means:
    • A written statement arising out of a sale to the consumer of a consumer good pursuant to which the manufacturer, distributor, or retailer undertakes to preserve or maintain the utility or performance of the consumer good or provide compensation if there is a failure in utility or performance; or
    • In the event of any sample or model, that the whole of the goods conforms to such sample or model.
  • It is not necessary to the creation of an express warranty that formal words such as "warrant" or "guarantee" be used, but if such words are used then an express warranty is created. An affirmation merely of the value of the goods or a statement purporting to be merely an opinion or commendation of the goods does not create a warranty.
  • Statements or representations such as expressions of general policy concerning customer satisfaction which are not subject to any limitation do not create an express warranty.

1791.3. As used in this chapter, a sale "as is" or "with all faults" means that the manufacturer, distributor, and retailer disclaim all implied warranties that would otherwise attach to the sale of consumer goods under the provisions of this chapter.

California Lemon Law CIVIL CODE SECTION 1792-1795.8

California Lemon Law 1792. Unless disclaimed in the manner prescribed by this chapter, every sale of consumer goods that are sold at retail in this state shall be accompanied by the manufacturer's and the retail seller's implied warranty that the goods are merchantable. The retail seller shall have a right of indemnity against the manufacturer in the amount of any liability under this section.

California Lemon Law 1792.1. Every sale of consumer goods that are sold at retail in this state by a manufacturer who has reason to know at the time of the retail sale that the goods are required for a particular purpose and that the buyer is relying on the manufacturer's skill or judgment to select or furnish suitable goods shall be accompanied by such manufacturer's implied warranty of fitness.

California Lemon Law 1792.2.

  • Every sale of consumer goods that are sold at retail in this state by a retailer or distributor who has reason to know at the time of the retail sale that the goods are required for a particular purpose, and that the buyer is relying on the retailer's or distributor's skill or judgment to select or furnish suitable goods shall be accompanied by such retailer's or distributor's implied warranty that the goods are fit for that purpose.
  • Every sale of an assistive device sold at retail in this state shall be accompanied by the retail seller's implied warranty that the device is specifically fit for the particular needs of the buyer.

California Lemon Law 1792.3. No implied warranty of merchantability and, where applicable, no implied warranty of fitness shall be waived, except in the case of a sale of consumer goods on an "as is" or "with all faults" basis where the provisions of this chapter affecting "as is" or "with all faults" sales are strictly complied with.

California Lemon Law 1792.4.

  • No sale of goods, governed by the provisions of this chapter, on an "as is" or "with all faults" basis, shall be effective to disclaim the implied warranty of merchantability or, where applicable, the implied warranty of fitness, unless a conspicuous writing is attached to the goods which clearly informs the buyer, prior to the sale, in simple and concise language of each of the following:
    • The goods are being sold on an "as is" or "with all faults" basis.
    • The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the goods is with the buyer.
    • Should the goods prove defective following their purchase, the buyer and not the manufacturer, distributor, or retailer assumes the entire cost of all necessary servicing or repair.
  • In the event of sale of consumer goods by means of a mail order catalog, the catalog offering such goods shall contain the required writing as to each item so offered in lieu of the requirement of notification prior to the sale.

California Lemon Law 1792.5.

Every sale of goods that are governed by the provisions of this chapter, on an "as is" or "with all faults" basis, made in compliance with the provisions of this chapter, shall constitute a waiver by the buyer of the implied warranty of merchantability and, where applicable, of the implied warranty of fitness.

California Lemon Law 1793.

Except as provided in Section 1793.02, nothing in this chapter shall affect the right of the manufacturer, distributor, or retailer to make express warranties with respect to consumer goods. However, a manufacturer, distributor, or retailer, in transacting a sale in which express warranties are given, may not limit, modify, or disclaim the Implied warranties guaranteed by this chapter to the sale of consumer goods.

California Lemon Law 1793.02.

  • All new and used assistive devices sold at retail in this state shall be accompanied by the retail seller's written warranty which shall contain the following language: "This assistive device is warranted to be specifically fit for the particular needs of you, the buyer. If the device is not specifically fit for your particular needs, it may be returned to the seller within 30 days of the date of actual receipt by you or completion of fitting by the seller, whichever occurs later. If you return the device, the seller will either adjust or replace the device or promptly refund the total amount paid. This warranty does not affect the protections and remedies you have under other laws." In lieu of the words "30 days" the retail seller may specify any longer period.
  • The language prescribed in subdivision (a) shall appear on the first page of the warranty in at least 10-point bold type. The warranty shall be delivered to the buyer at the time of the sale of the device.
  • If the buyer returns the device within the period specified in the written warranty, the seller shall, without charge and within a reasonable time, adjust the device or, if appropriate, replace it with a device that is specifically fit for the particular needs of the buyer. If the seller does not adjust or replace the device so that it is specifically fit for the particular needs of the buyer, the seller shall promptly refund to the buyer the total amount paid, the transaction shall be deemed rescinded, and the seller shall promptly return to the buyer all payments and any assistive device or other consideration exchanged as part of the transaction and shall promptly cancel or cause to be canceled all contracts, instruments, and security agreements executed by the buyer in connection with the sale. When a sale is rescinded under this section, no charge, penalty, or other fee may be imposed in connection with the purchase, fitting, financing, or return of the device.
  • With respect to the retail sale of an assistive device to an individual, organization, or agency known by the seller to be purchasing for the ultimate user of the device, this section and subdivision (b) of Section 1792.2 shall be construed to require that the device be specifically fit for the particular needs of the ultimate user.
  • This section and subdivision (b) of Section 1792.2 shall not apply to any of the following sales of assistive devices:
    • A catalog or similar sale, as defined in subdivision (q) of Section 1791, except a sale of a hearing aid.
    • A sale which involves a retail sale price of less than fifteen dollars ($15).
    • A surgical implant performed by a physician and surgeon, or a restoration or dental prosthesis provided by a dentist.
  • The rights and remedies of the buyer under this section and subdivision (b) of Section 1792.2 are not subject to waiver under Section 1792.3. The rights and remedies of the buyer under this section and subdivision (b) of Section 1792.2 are cumulative, and shall not be construed to affect the obligations of the retail seller or any other party or to supplant the rights or remedies of the buyer under any other section of this chapter or under any other law or instrument.
  • Section 1795.5 shall not apply to a sale of used assistive devices, and for the purposes of the Song-Beverly Consumer Warranty Act the buyer of a used assistive device shall have the same rights and remedies as the buyer of a new assistive device.
  • The language in subdivision (a) shall not constitute an express warranty for purposes of Sections 1793.2 and 1793.3.

California Lemon Law 1793.025.

  • All new and used wheelchairs, including, but not limited to, wheelchairs that are motorized or have been otherwise customized to suit the needs of the user, shall be accompanied by the manufacturer's or lessor's written express warranty that the wheelchair is free of defects. The duration of the warranty shall be for a period of at least one year from the date of the first delivery of a new wheelchair to the consumer, or at least 60 days from the date of the first delivery of a used, refurbished, or reconditioned wheelchair to the consumer. If the written express warranty is not furnished to the consumer, the wheelchair nonetheless shall be deemed to be covered by the express warranty. This section shall not apply to wheelchairs manufactured specifically for athletic, competitive, or off-road use.
  • The provisions of this chapter for express warranties govern the express warranty described in subdivision (a), whether or not those provisions only apply to the sale, and not the lease, of goods.
  • A reasonable number of attempts have been made to conform a wheelchair to the express warranty if, within the warranty period or within one year of inception of the warranty, whichever occurs first
    • the same nonconformity has been subject to repair four or more times by the manufacturer, lessor, or an agent thereof, and continues to exist, or
    • the wheelchair is out of service by reason of repair of nonconformities by the manufacturer, lessor, or an agent thereof, for a cumulative total of more than 30 calendar days since inception of the warranty.
  • No wheelchair that has been returned to the manufacturer, lessor, or an agent thereof, by the consumer for failure to repair a nonconformity after a reasonable number of attempts, either in this state or in another state pursuant to a similar statute of that state, may be sold or leased again in this state unless the reasons for the return are fully disclosed to the prospective buyer or lessee.
  • If the wheelchair is out of service for a period of at least 24 hours for the repair of a nonconformity by the manufacturer, lessor, or agent thereof, a temporary replacement wheelchair shall be made available to the consumer, if requested. The provider of the temporary replacement wheelchair may not charge the consumer more than the cost to the provider to make the wheelchair available to the consumer. Nothing in this subdivision is intended to prevent a consumer and a provider from negotiating an agreement in which the provider assumes the cost of providing a temporary replacement wheelchair to the consumer.

California Lemon Law 1793.03.

  • Every manufacturer making an express warranty with respect to an electronic or appliance product described in subdivision (h), (i), (j), or (k) of Section 9801 of the Business and Professions Code, with a wholesale price to the retailer of not less than fifty dollars ($50) and not more than ninety-nine dollars and ninety-nine cents ($99.99), shall make available to service and repair facilities sufficient service literature and functional parts to effect the repair of a product for at least three years after the date a product model or type was manufactured, regardless of whether the three-year period exceeds the warranty period for the product.
  • Every manufacturer making an express warranty with respect to an electronic or appliance product described in subdivision (h), (i), (j), or (k) of Section 9801 of the Business and Professions Code, with a wholesale price to the retailer of one hundred dollars ($100) or more, shall make available to service and repair facilities sufficient service literature and functional parts to effect the repair of a product for at least seven years after the date a product model or type was manufactured, regardless of whether the seven-year period exceeds the warranty period for the product

California Lemon Law 1793.05. Vehicle manufacturers who alter new vehicles into house cars shall, in addition to any new product warranty, assume any warranty responsibility of the original vehicle manufacturer for any and all components of the finished product which are, by virtue of any act of the alterer, no longer covered by the warranty issued by the original vehicle manufacturer.

California Lemon Law 1793.1.

    • Every manufacturer, distributor, or retailer making express warranties with respect to consumer goods shall fully set forth those warranties in simple and readily understood language, which shall clearly identify the party making the express warranties, and which shall conform to the federal standards for disclosure of warranty terms and conditions set forth in the federal Magnuson-Moss Warranty-Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act (15 U.S.C. Sec.2301 et seq.), and in the regulations of the Federal Trade Commission adopted pursuant to the provisions of that act. If the manufacturer, distributor, or retailer provides a warranty or product registration card or form, or an electronic online warranty or product registration form, to be completed and returned by the consumer, the card or form shall contain statements, each displayed in a clear and conspicuous manner, that do all of the following:
      • Informs the consumer that the card or form is for product registration.
      • Informs the consumer that failure to complete and return the card or form does not diminish his or her warranty rights.
    • Every work order or repair invoice for warranty repairs or service shall clearly and conspicuously incorporate in 10-point boldface type the following statement either on the face of the work order or repair invoice, or on the reverse side, or on an attachment to the work order or repair invoice: "A buyer of this product in California has the right to have this product serviced or repaired during the warranty period. The warranty period will be extended for the number of whole days that the product has been out of the buyer's hands for warranty repairs. If a defect exists within the warranty period, the warranty will not expire until the defect has been fixed. The warranty period will also be extended if the warranty repairs have not been performed due to delays caused by circumstances beyond the control of the buyer, or if the warranty repairs did not remedy the defect and the buyer notifies the manufacturer or seller of the failure of the repairs within 60 days after they were completed. If, after a reasonable number of attempts, the defect has not been fixed, the buyer may return this product for a replacement or a refund subject, in either case, to deduction of a reasonable charge for usage. This time extension does not affect the protections or remedies the buyer has under other laws." If the re quired notice is placed on the reverse side of the work order or repair invoice, the face of the work order or repair invoice shall include the following notice in 10-point boldface type: "Notice to Consumer: Please read important information on back."
      A copy of the work order or repair invoice and any attachment shall be presented to the buyer at the time that warranty service or repairs are made.
  • No warranty or product registration card or form, or an electronic online warranty or product registration form, may be labeled as a warranty registration or a warranty confirmation.
  • The requirements imposed by this section on the distribution of any warranty or product registration card or form, or an electronic online warranty or product registration form, shall become effective on January 1, 2004.
  • This section does not apply to any warranty or product registration card or form that was printed prior to January 1, 2004, and was shipped or included with a product that was placed in the stream of commerce prior to January 1, 2004.
  • Every manufacturer, distributor, or retailer making express warranties and who elects to maintain service and repair facilities within this state pursuant to this chapter shall perform one or more of the following:
    • At the time of sale, provide the buyer with the name and address of each service and repair facility within this state.
    • At the time of the sale, provide the buyer with the name and address and telephone number of a service and repair facility central directory within this state, or the toll-free telephone number of a service and repair facility central directory outside this state. It shall be the duty of the central directory to provide, upon inquiry, the name and address of the authorized service and repair facility nearest the buyer.
    • Maintain at the premises of retail sellers of the warrantor's consumer goods a current listing of the warrantor's authorized service and repair facilities, or retail sellers to whom the consumer goods are to be returned for service and repair, whichever is applicable, within this state. It shall be the duty of every retail seller provided with that listing to provide, on inquiry, the name, address, and telephone number of the nearest authorized service and repair facility, or the retail seller to whom the consumer goods are to be returned for service and repair, whichever is applicable.

    California Lemon Law 1793.2.

    • Every manufacturer of consumer goods sold in this state and for which the manufacturer has made an express warranty shall:
        • Maintain in this state sufficient service and repair facilities reasonably close to all areas where its consumer goods are sold to carry out the terms of those warranties or designate and authorize in this state as service and repair facilities independent repair or service facilities reasonably close to all areas where its consumer goods are sold to carry out the terms of the warranties.
        • As a means of complying with this paragraph, a manufacturer may enter into warranty service contracts with independent service and repair facilities. The warranty service contracts may provide for a fixed schedule of rates to be charged for warranty service or warranty repair work. However, the rates fixed by those contracts shall be in conformity with the requirements of subdivision (c) of Section 1793.3. The rates established pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1793.3, between the manufacturer and the independent service and repair facility, do not preclude a good faith discount that is reasonably related to reduced credit and general overhead cost factors arising from the manufacturer's payment of warranty charges direct to the independent service and repair facility. The warranty service contracts authorized by this paragraph may not be executed to cover a period of time in excess of one year, and may be renewed only by a separate, new contract or letter of agreement between the manufacturer and the independent service and repair facility.
      • In the event of a failure to comply with paragraph (1) of this subdivision, be subject to Section 1793.5.
      • Make available to authorized service and repair facilities sufficient service literature and replacement parts to effect repairs during the express warranty period.
    • Where those service and repair facilities are maintained in this state and service or repair of the goods is necessary because they do not conform with the applicable express warranties, service and repair shall be commenced within a reasonable time by the manufacturer or its representative in this state. Unless the buyer agrees in writing to the contrary, the goods shall be serviced or repaired so as to conform to the applicable warranties within 30 days. Delay caused by conditions beyond the control of the manufacturer or its representatives shall serve to extend this 30-day requirement. Where delay arises, conforming goods shall be tendered as soon as possible following termination of the condition giving rise to the delay.
    • The buyer shall deliver nonconforming goods to the manufacturer's service and repair facility within this state, unless, due to reasons of size and weight, or method of attachment, or method of installation, or nature of the nonconformity, delivery cannot reasonably be accomplished. If the buyer cannot return the nonconforming goods for any of these reasons, he or she shall notify the manufacturer or its nearest service and repair facility within the state. Written notice of nonconformity to the manufacturer or its service and repair facility shall constitute return of the goods for purposes of this section. Upon receipt of that notice of nonconformity, the manufacturer shall, at its option, service or repair the goods at the buyer's residence, or pick up the goods for service and repair, or arrange for transporting the goods to its service and repair facility. All reasonable costs of transporting the goods when a buyer cannot return them for any of the above reasons shall be at the manufacturer's expense. The reasonable costs of transporting nonconforming goods after delivery to the service and repair facility until return of the goods to the buyer shall be at the manufacturer's expense.
      • Except as provided in paragraph (2), if the manufacturer or its representative in this state does not service or repair the goods to conform to the applicable express warranties after a reasonable number of attempts, the manufacturer shall either replace the goods or reimburse the buyer in an amount equal to the purchase price paid by the buyer, less that amount directly attributable to use by the buyer prior to the discovery of the nonconformity.
      • If the manufacturer or its representative in this state is unable to service or repair a new motor vehicle, as that term is defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision
    • of Section 1793.22, to conform to the applicable express warranties after a reasonable number of attempts, the manufacturer shall either promptly replace the new motor vehicle in accordance with subparagraph (A) or promptly make restitution to the buyer in accordance with subparagraph (B). However, the buyer shall be free to elect restitution in lieu of replacement, and in no event shall the buyer be required by the manufacturer to accept a replacement vehicle.
      • In the case of replacement, the manufacturer shall replace the buyer's vehicle with a new motor vehicle substantially identical to the vehicle replaced. The replacement vehicle shall be accompanied by all express and implied warranties that normally accompany new motor vehicles of that specific kind. The manufacturer also shall pay for, or to, the buyer the amount of any sales or use tax, license fees, registration fees, and other official fees which the buyer is obligated to pay in connection with the replacement, plus any incidental damages to which the buyer is entitled under Section 1794, including, but not limited to, reasonable repair, towing, and rental car costs actually incurred by the buyer.
      • In the case of restitution, the manufacturer shall make restitution in an amount equal to the actual price paid or payable by the buyer, including any charges for transportation and manufacturer-installed options, but excluding non manufacturer items installed by a dealer or the buyer, and including any collateral charges such as sales tax, license fees, registration fees, and other official fees, plus any incidental damages to which the buyer is entitled under Section 1794, including, but not limited to, reasonable repair, towing, and rental car costs actually incurred by the buyer.
      • When the manufacturer replaces the new motor vehicle pursuant to subparagraph (A), the buyer shall only be liable to pay the manufacturer an amount directly attributable to use by the buyer of the replaced vehicle prior to the time the buyer first delivered the vehicle to the manufacturer or distributor, or its authorized service and repair facility for correction of the problem that gave rise to the nonconformity. When restitution is made pursuant to subparagraph (B), the amount to be paid by the manufacturer to the buyer may be reduced by the manufacturer by that amount directly attributable to use by the buyer prior to the time the buyer first delivered the vehicle to the manufacturer or distributor, or its authorized service and repair facility for correction of the problem that gave rise to the nonconformity. The amount directly attributable to use by the buyer shall be determined by multiplying the actual price of the new motor vehicle paid or payable by the buyer, including any charges for transportation and manufacturer-installed options, by a fraction having as its denominator 120,000 and having as its numerator the number of miles traveled by the new motor vehicle prior to the time the buyer first delivered the vehicle to the manufacturer or distributor, or its authorized service and repair facility for correction of the problem that gave rise to the nonconformity. Nothing in this paragraph shall in any way limit the rights or remedies available to the buyer under any other law.
        • If the goods cannot practicably be serviced or repaired by the manufacturer or its representative to conform to the applicable express warranties because of the method of installation or because the goods have become so affixed to real property as to become a part thereof, the manufacturer shall either replace and install the goods or reimburse the buyer in an amount equal to the purchase price paid by the buyer, including installation costs, less that amount directly attributable to use by the buyer prior to the discovery of the nonconformity.
        • With respect to claims arising out of deficiencies in the construction of a new residential dwelling, paragraph (1) shall not apply to either of the following:
          • A product that is not a manufactured product, as defined in subdivision (g) of Section 896.
          • A claim against a person or entity that is not the manufacturer that originally made the express warranty for that manufactured product.

      California Lemon Law 1793.22.

      • This section shall be known and may be cited as the Tanner Consumer Protection Act.
      • It shall be presumed that a reasonable number of attempts have been made to conform a new motor vehicle to the applicable express warranties if, within 18 months from delivery to the buyer or 18,000 miles on the odometer of the vehicle, whichever occurs first, one or more of the following occurs:
        • The same nonconformity results in a condition that is likely to cause death or serious bodily injury if the vehicle is driven and the nonconformity has been subject to repair two or more times by the manufacturer or its agents, and the buyer or lessee has at least once directly notified the manufacturer of the need for the repair of the nonconformity.
        • The same nonconformity has been subject to repair four or more times by the manufacturer or its agents and the buyer has at least once directly notified the manufacturer of the need for the repair of the nonconformity.
        • The vehicle is out of service by reason of repair of nonconformities by the manufacturer or its agents for a cumulative total of more than 30 calendar days since delivery of the vehicle to the buyer. The 30-day limit shall be extended only if repairs cannot be performed due to conditions beyond the control of the manufacturer or its agents. The buyer shall be required to directly notify the manufacturer pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) only if the manufacturer has clearly and conspicuously disclosed to the buyer, with the warranty or the owner's manual, the provisions of this section and that of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2, including the requirement that the buyer must notify the manufacturer directly pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2). The notification, if required, shall be sent to the address, if any, specified clearly and conspicuously by the manufacturer in the warranty or owner's manual. This presumption shall be a rebuttable presumption affecting the burden of proof, and it may be asserted by the buyer in any civil action, including an action in small claims court, or other formal or informal proceeding.
      • If a qualified third-party dispute resolution process exists, and the buyer receives timely notification in writing of the availability of that qualified third-party dispute resolution process with a description of its operation and effect, the presumption in subdivision (b) may not be asserted by the buyer until after the buyer has initially resorted to the qualified third-party dispute resolution process as required in subdivision (d). Notification of the availability of the qualified third-party dispute resolution process is not timely if the buyer suffers any prejudice resulting from any delay in giving the notification. If a qualified third-party dispute resolution process does not exist, or if the buyer is dissatisfied with that third-party decision, or if the manufacturer or its agent neglects to promptly fulfill the terms of the qualified third-party dispute resolution process decision after the decision is accepted by the buyer, the buyer may assert the presumption provided in subdivision (b) in an action to enforce the buyer's rights under subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2. The findings and decision of a qualified third-party dispute resolution process shall be admissible in evidence in the action without further foundation. Any period of limitation of actions under any federal or California laws with respect to any person shall be extended for a period equal to the number of days between the date a complaint is filed with a third-party dispute resolution process and the date of its decision or the date before which the manufacturer or its agent is required by the decision to fulfill its terms if the decision is accepted by the buyer, whichever occurs later.
      • A qualified third-party dispute resolution process shall be one that does all of the following:
        • Complies with the minimum requirements of the Federal Trade Commission for informal dispute settlement procedures as set forth in Part 703 of Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as those regulations read on January 1, 1987.
        • Renders decisions which are binding on the manufacturer if the buyer elects to accept the decision.
        • Prescribes a reasonable time, not to exceed 30 days after the decision is accepted by the buyer, within which the manufacturer or its agent must fulfill the terms of its decisions.
        • Provides arbitrators who are assigned to decide disputes with copies of, and instruction in, the provisions of the Federal Trade Commission's regulations in Part 703 of Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations as those regulations read on January 1, 1987, Division 2 (commencing with Section 2101) of the Commercial Code, and this chapter.
        • Requires the manufacturer, when the process orders, under the terms of this chapter, either that the nonconforming motor vehicle be replaced if the buyer consents to this remedy or that restitution be made to the buyer, to replace the motor vehicle or make restitution in accordance with paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2.
        • Provides, at the request of the arbitrator or a majority of the arbitration panel, for an inspection and written report on the condition of a nonconforming motor vehicle, at no cost to the buyer, by an automobile expert who is independent of the manufacturer.
        • Takes into account, in rendering decisions, all legal and equitable factors, including, but not limited to, the written warranty, the rights and remedies conferred in regulations of the Federal Trade Commission contained in Part 703 of Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations as those regulations read on January 1, 1987, Division 2 (commencing with Section 2101) of the Commercial Code, this chapter, and any other equitable considerations appropriate in the circumstances. Nothing in this chapter requires that, to be certified as a qualified third-party dispute resolution process pursuant to this section, decisions of the process must consider or provide remedies in the form of awards of punitive damages or multiple damages, under subdivision (c) of Section 1794, or of attorneys' fees under subdivision (d) of Section 1794, or of consequential damages other than as provided in subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 1794, including, but not limited to, reasonable repair, towing, and rental car costs actually incurred by the buyer.
        • Requires that no arbitrator deciding a dispute may be a party to the dispute and that no other person, including an employee, agent, or dealer for the manufacturer, may be allowed to participate substantively in the merits of any dispute with the arbitrator unless the buyer is allowed to participate also. Nothing in this subdivision prohibits any member of an arbitration board from deciding a dispute.
        • Obtains and maintains certification by the Department of Consumer Affairs pursuant to Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 472) of Division 1 of the Business and Professions Code.
      • For the purposes of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2 and this section, the following terms have the following meanings:
        • "Nonconformity" means a nonconformity which substantially impairs the use, value, or safety of the new motor vehicle to the buyer or lessee.
        • "New motor vehicle" means a new motor vehicle that is bought or used primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. "New motor vehicle" also means a new motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight under 10,000 pounds that is bought or used primarily for business purposes by a person, including a partnership, limited liability company, corporation, association, or any other legal entity, to which not more than five motor vehicles are registered in this state. "New motor vehicle" includes the chassis, chassis cab, and that portion of a motor home devoted to its propulsion, but does not include any portion designed, used, or maintained primarily for human habitation, a dealer-owned vehicle and a "demonstrator" or other motor vehicle sold with a manufacturer's new car warranty but does not include a motorcycle or a motor vehicle which is not registered under the Vehicle Code because it is to be operated or used exclusively off the highways. A demonstrator is a vehicle assigned by a dealer for the purpose of demonstrating qualities and characteristics common to vehicles of the same or similar model and type.
        • "Motor home" means a vehicular unit built on, or permanently attached to, a self-propelled motor vehicle chassis, chassis cab, or van, which becomes an integral part of the completed vehicle, designed for human habitation for recreational or emergency occupancy.
        • Except as provided in paragraph (2), no person shall sell, either at wholesale or retail, lease, or transfer a motor vehicle transferred by a buyer or lessee to a manufacturer pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2 or a similar statute of any other state, unless the nature of the nonconformity experienced by the original buyer or lessee is clearly and conspicuously disclosed to the prospective buyer, lessee, or transferee, the nonconformity is corrected, and the manufacturer warrants to the new buyer, lessee, or transferee in writing for a period of one year that the motor vehicle is free of that nonconformity. Except for the requirement that the nature of the nonconformity be disclosed to the transferee, paragraph (1) does not apply to the transfer of a motor vehicle to an educational institution if the purpose of the transfer is to make the motor vehicle available for use in automotive repair courses.

      California Lemon Law 1793.23.

      • The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:
        • That the expansion of state warranty laws covering new and used cars has given important and valuable protection to consumers.
        • That, in states without this valuable warranty protection, used and irrepairable motor vehicles are being resold in the marketplace without notice to the subsequent purchaser.
        • That other states have addressed this problem by requiring notices on the title of these vehicles or other notice procedures to warn consumers that the motor vehicles were repurchased by a dealer or manufacturer because the vehicle could not be repaired in a reasonable length of time or a reasonable number of repair attempts or the dealer or manufacturer was not willing to repair the vehicle.
        • That these notices serve the interests of consumers who have a right to information relevant to their buying decisions.
        • That the disappearance of these notices upon the transfer of title from another state to this state encourages the transport of "lemons" to this state for sale to the drivers of this state.
      • This section and Section 1793.24 shall be known, and may be cited as, the Automotive Consumer Notification Act.
      • Any manufacturer who reacquires or assists a dealer or lienholder to reacquire a motor vehicle registered in this state, any other state, or a federally administered district shall, prior to any sale, lease, or transfer of the vehicle in this state, or prior to exporting the vehicle to another state for sale, lease, or transfer if the vehicle was registered in this state and reacquired pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2, cause the vehicle to be retitled in the name of the manufacturer, request the Department of Motor Vehicles to inscribe the ownership certificate with the notation "Lemon Law Buyback," and affix a decal to the vehicle in accordance with Section 11713.12 of the Vehicle Code if the manufacturer knew or should have known that the vehicle is required by law to be replaced, accepted for restitution due to the failure of the manufacturer to conform the vehicle to applicable warranties pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2, or accepted for restitution by the manufacturer due to the failure of the manufacturer to conform the vehicle to warranties required by any other applicable law of the state, any other state, or federal law.
      • Any manufacturer who reacquires or assists a dealer or lienholder to reacquire a motor vehicle in response to a request by the buyer or lessee that the vehicle be either replaced or accepted for restitution because the vehicle did not conform to express warranties shall, prior to the sale, lease, or other transfer of the vehicle, execute and deliver to the subsequent transferee a notice and obtain the transferee's written acknowledgment of a notice, as prescribed by Section 1793.24.
      • Any person, including any dealer, who acquires a motor vehicle for resale and knows or should have known that the vehicle was reacquired by the vehicle's manufacturer in response to a request by the last retail owner or lessee of the vehicle that it be replaced or accepted for restitution because the vehicle did not conform to express warranties shall, prior to the sale, lease, or other transfer, execute and deliver to the subsequent transferee a notice and obtain the transferee's written acknowledgment of a notice, as prescribed by Section 1793.24.
      • Any person, including any manufacturer or dealer, who sells, leases, or transfers ownership of a motor vehicle when the vehicle's ownership certificate is inscribed with the notation "Lemon Law Buyback" shall, prior to the sale, lease, or ownership transfer of the vehicle, provide the transferee with a disclosure statement signed by the transferee that states: "THIS VEHICLE WAS REPURCHASED BY ITS MANUFACTURER DUE TO A DEFECT IN THE VEHICLE PURSUANT TO CONSUMER WARRANTY LAWS. THE TITLE TO THIS VEHICLE HAS BEEN PERMANENTLY BRANDED WITH THE NOTATION "LEMON LAW BUYBACK'."
      • The disclosure requirements in subdivisions (d), (e), and (f) are cumulative with all other consumer notice requirements and do not relieve any person, including any dealer or manufacturer, from complying with any other applicable law, including any requirement of subdivision (f) of Section 1793.22.
      • For purposes of this section, "dealer" means any person engaged in the business of selling, offering for sale, or negotiating the retail sale of, a used motor vehicle or selling motor vehicles as a broker or agent for another, including the officers, agents, and employees of the person and any combination or association of dealers.

      California Lemon Law 1793.24.

      • The notice required in subdivisions (d) and (e) of Section 1793.23 shall be prepared by the manufacturer of the reacquired vehicle and shall disclose all of the following:
        • Year, make, model, and vehicle identification number of the vehicle.
        • Whether the title to the vehicle has been inscribed with the notation "Lemon Law Buyback."
        • The nature of each nonconformity reported by the original buyer or lessee of the vehicle.
        • Repairs, if any, made to the vehicle in an attempt to correct each nonconformity reported by the original buyer or lessee.
      • The notice shall be on a form 81/2 x 11 inches in size and printed in no smaller than 10-point black type on a white background. The form shall only contain the following information prior to it being filled out by the manufacturer:

        California Lemon Law - WARRANTY BUYBACK NOTICE

        (Check One)

        /__/ This vehicle was repurchased by the vehicle's manufacturer after the last retail owner or lessee requested its repurchase due to the problem(s) listed below.

        /__/ THIS VEHICLE WAS REPURCHASED BY ITS MANUFACTURER DUE TO A DEFECT IN THE VEHICLE PURSUANT TO CONSUMER WARRANTY LAWS. THE TITLE TO THIS VEHICLE HAS BEEN PERMANENTLY BRANDED WITH THE NOTATION "LEMON LAW BUYBACK." Under California law, the manufacturer must warrant to you, for a one year period, that the vehicle is free of the problem (s). listed below.

        ___________________________________________________________ |V.I.N.      |Year     | Make      | Model     |
        |__________________________|________|__________|____________|
        ___________________________________________________________
        | Problem(s) Reported by | Repairs Made, if any, to |
        | Original Owner | Correct Reported Problem(s) |
        |                      |                      |
        |                      |                      |
        |                      |                      |
        |                      |                      |
        |                      |                      |
        |                      |                      |
        |___________________________|_______________________________|

        Signature of Manufacturer                                     Date
        _______________________________________________ ____________

        Signature of Dealer(s)                                          Date
        _______________________________________________ ____________
        _______________________________________________ ____________
        _______________________________________________ ____________

        Signature of Retail Buyer or Lessee                     Date
        _______________________________________________ ____________
        _______________________________________________ ____________

      • The manufacturer shall provide an executed copy of the notice to the manufacturer's transferee. Each transferee, including a dealer, to whom the motor vehicle is transferred prior to its sale to a retail buyer or lessee shall be provided an executed copy of the notice by the previous transferor.

      California Lemon Law 1793.25.

      • Notwithstanding Part 1 (commencing with Section 6001) of Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, the State Board of Equalization shall reimburse the manufacturer of a new motor vehicle for an amount equal to the sales tax which the manufacturer pays to or for the buyer when providing a replacement vehicle pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2 or includes in making restitution to the buyer pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2, when satisfactory proof is provided that the retailer of the motor vehicle for which the manufacturer is making restitution has reported and paid the sales tax on the gross receipts from the sale of that motor vehicle and the manufacturer provides satisfactory proof that it has complied with subdivision (c) of Section 1793.23. The State Board of Equalization may adopt rules and regulations to carry out, facilitate compliance with, or prevent circumvention or evasion of, this section.
      • Nothing in this section shall in any way change the application of the sales and use tax to the gross receipts and the sales price from the sale, and the storage, use, or other consumption, in this state or tangible personal property pursuant to Part 1 (commencing with Section 6001) of Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.
      • The manufacturer's claim for reimbursement and the board's approval or denial of the claim shall be subject to the provisions of Article 1 (commencing with Section 6901) of Chapter 7 of Part 1 of Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, except Sections 6902.1, 6903, 6907, and 6908 thereof, insofar as those provisions are not inconsistent with this section.

      California Lemon Law 1793.26.

      • Any automobile manufacturer, importer, distributor, dealer, or lienholder who reacquires, or who assists in reacquiring, a motor vehicle, whether by judgment, decree, arbitration award, settlement agreement, or voluntary agreement, is prohibited from doing either of the following:
        • Requiring, as a condition of the reacquisition of the motor vehicle, that a buyer or lessee who is a resident of this state agree not to disclose the problems with the vehicle experienced by the buyer or lessee or the nonfinancial terms of the reacquisition.
        • Including, in any release or other agreement, whether prepared by the manufacturer, importer, distributor, dealer, or lienholder, for signature by the buyer or lessee, a confidentiality clause, gag clause, or similar clause prohibiting the buyer or lessee from disclosing information to anyone about the problems with the vehicle, or the nonfinancial terms of the reacquisition of the vehicle by the manufacturer, importer, distributor, dealer, or lienholder.
      • Any confidentiality clause, gag clause, or similar clause in such a release or other agreement in violation of this section shall be null and void as against the public policy of this state.
      • Nothing in this section is intended to prevent any confidentiality clause, gag clause, or similar clause regarding the financial terms of the reacquisition of the vehicle.

      California Lemon Law 1793.3.

      If the manufacturer of consumer goods sold in this state for which the manufacturer has made an express warranty does not provide service and repair facilities within this state pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1793.2, or does not make available to authorized service and repair facilities service literature and replacement parts sufficient to effect repair during the express warranty period, the buyer of such manufacturer's nonconforming goods may follow the course of action prescribed in either subdivision (a), (b), or (c), below, as follows:

      • Return the nonconforming consumer goods to the retail seller thereof. The retail seller shall do one of the following:
        • Service or repair the nonconforming goods to conform to the applicable warranty.
        • Direct the buyer to a reasonably close independent repair or service facility willing to accept service or repair under this section.
        • Replace the nonconforming goods with goods that are identical or reasonably equivalent to the warranted goods.
        • Refund to the buyer the original purchase price less that amount directly attributable to use by the buyer prior to the discovery of the nonconformity.
      • Return the nonconforming consumer goods to any retail seller of like goods of the same manufacturer within this state who may do one of the following:
        • Service or repair the nonconforming goods to conform to the applicable warranty.
        • Direct the buyer to a reasonably close independent repair or service facility willing to accept service or repair under this section.
        • Replace the nonconforming goods with goods that are identical or reasonably equivalent to the warranted goods.
        • Refund to the buyer the original purchase price less that amount directly attributable to use by the buyer prior to the discovery of the nonconformity.
      • Secure the services of an independent repair or service facility for the service or repair of the nonconforming consumer goods, when service or repair of the goods can be economically accomplished. In that event the manufacturer shall be liable to the buyer, or to the independent repair or service facility upon an assignment of the buyer's rights, for the actual and reasonable cost of service and repair, including any cost for parts and any reasonable cost of transporting the goods or parts, plus a reasonable profit. It shall be a rebuttable presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence that the reasonable cost of service or repair is an amount equal to that which is charged by the independent service dealer for like services or repairs rendered to service or repair customers who are not entitled to warranty protection. Any waiver of the liability of a manufacturer shall be void and unenforceable.
        The course of action prescribed in this subdivision shall be available to the buyer only after the buyer has followed the course of action prescribed in either subdivision (a) or (b) and such course of action has not furnished the buyer with appropriate relief. In no event, shall the provisions of this subdivision be available to the buyer with regard to consumer goods with a wholesale price to the retailer of less than fifty dollars ($50). In no event shall the buyer be responsible or liable for service or repair costs charged by the independent repair or service facility which accepts service or repair of nonconforming consumer goods under this section. Such independent repair or service facility shall only be authorized to hold the manufacturer liable for such costs.
      • A retail seller to which any nonconforming consumer good is returned pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) shall have the option of providing service or repair itself or directing the buyer to a reasonably close independent repair or service facility willing to accept service or repair under this section. In the event the retail seller directs the buyer to an independent repair or service facility, the manufacturer shall be liable for the reasonable cost of repair services in the manner provided in subdivision (c).
      • In the event a buyer is unable to return nonconforming goods to the retailer due to reasons of size and weight, or method of attachment, or method of installation, or nature of the nonconformity, the buyer shall give notice of the nonconformity to the retailer. Upon receipt of such notice of nonconformity the retailer shall, at its option, service or repair the goods at the buyer's residence, or pick up the goods for service or repair, or arrange for transporting the goods to its place of business. The reasonable costs of transporting the goods shall be at the retailer' s expense. The retailer shall be entitled to recover all such reasonable costs of transportation from the manufacturer pursuant to Section 1793.5. The reasonable costs of transporting nonconforming goods after delivery to the retailer until return of the goods to the buyer, when incurred by a retailer, shall be recoverable from the manufacturer pursuant to Section 1793.5. Written notice of nonconformity to the retailer shall constitute return of the goods for the purposes of subdivisions (a) and (b).
      • The manufacturer of consumer goods with a wholesale price to the retailer of fifty dollars ($50) or more for which the manufacturer has made express warranties shall provide written notice to the buyer of the courses of action available to him under subdivision (a), (b), or (c).

      California Lemon Law 1793.35.

      • Where the retail sale of clothing or consumables is accompanied by an express warranty and such items do not conform with the terms of the express warranty, the buyer thereof may return the goods within 30 days of purchase or the period specified in the warranty, whichever is greater. The manufacturer may, in the express warranty, direct the purchaser to return nonconforming goods to a retail seller of like goods of the same manufacturer for replacement.
      • When clothing or consumables are returned to a retail seller for the reason that they do not conform to an express warranty, the retailer shall replace the nonconforming goods where the manufacturer has directed replacement in the express warranty. In the event the manufacturer has not directed replacement in the express warranty, the retailer may replace the nonconforming goods or reimburse the buyer in an amount equal to the purchase price paid by the buyer for the goods, at the option of the retailer. Costs of reimbursement or replacement are recoverable by a retailer from the manufacturer in the manner provided in Section 1793.5.
      • Where the retail sale of draperies is not accompanied by an express warranty and the sale of such draperies is accompanied by a conspicuous writing disclaiming the retailer's implied warranty of merchantability on the fabric, the retailer's implied warranty of merchantability shall not apply to the fabric.

      California Lemon Law 1793.4.
      Where an option is exercised in favor of service and repair under Section 1793.3, such service and repair must be commenced within a reasonable time, and, unless the buyer agrees in writing to the contrary, goods conforming to the applicable express warranties shall be tendered within 30 days. Delay caused by conditions beyond the control of the retail seller or his representative shall serve to extend this 30-day requirement. Where such a delay arises, conforming goods shall be tendered as soon as possible following termination of the condition giving rise to the delay.

      California Lemon Law 1793.5.
      Every manufacturer making express warranties who does not provide service and repair facilities within this state pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1793.2 shall be liable as prescribed in this section to every retail seller of such manufacturer's goods who incurs obligations in giving effect to the express warranties that accompany such manufacturer's consumer goods. The amount of such liability shall be determined as follows:

      • In the event of replacement, in an amount equal to the actual cost to the retail seller of the replaced goods, and cost of transporting the goods, if such costs are incurred plus a reasonable handling charge.
      • In the event of service and repair, in an amount equal to that which would be received by the retail seller for like service rendered to retail consumers who are not entitled to warranty protection, including actual and reasonable costs of the service and repair and the cost of transporting the goods, if such costs are incurred, plus a reasonable profit.
      • In the event of reimbursement under subdivision (a) of Section 1793.3, in an amount equal to that reimbursed to the buyer, plus a reasonable handling charge.

      California Lemon Law 1793.6.
      Except as otherwise provided in the terms of a warranty service contract, as specified in subdivision (a) of Section 1793.2, entered into between a manufacturer and an independent service and repair facility, every manufacturer making express warranties whose consumer goods are sold in this state shall be liable as prescribed in this section to every independent serviceman who performs services or incurs obligations in giving effect to the express warranties that accompany such manufacturer's consumer goods whether the independent serviceman is acting as an authorized service and repair facility designated by the manufacturer pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 1793.2 or is acting as an independent serviceman pursuant to subdivisions (c) and (d) of Section 1793.3. The amount of such liability shall be an amount equal to the actual and reasonable costs of the service and repair, including any cost for parts and any reasonable cost of transporting the goods or parts, plus a reasonable profit. It shall be a rebuttable presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence that the reasonable cost of service or repair is an amount equal to that which is charged by the independent serviceman for like services or repairs rendered to service or repair customers who are not entitled to warranty protection. Any waiver of the liability of a manufacturer shall be void and unenforceable.

      California Lemon Law 1794.

      • Any buyer of consumer goods who is damaged by a failure to comply with any obligation under this chapter or under an implied or express warranty or service contract may bring an action for the recovery of damages and other legal and equitable relief.
      • The measure of the buyer's damages in an action under this section shall include the rights of replacement or reimbursement as set forth in subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2, and the following:
        • Where the buyer has rightfully rejected or justifiably revoked acceptance of the goods or has exercised any right to cancel the sale, Sections 2711, 2712, and 2713 of the Commercial Code shall apply.
        • Where the buyer has accepted the goods, Sections 2714 and 2715 of the Commercial Code shall apply, and the measure of damages shall include the cost of repairs necessary to make the goods conform.
      • If the buyer establishes that the failure to comply was willful, the judgment may include, in addition to the amounts recovered under subdivision (a), a civil penalty which shall not exceed two times the amount of actual damages. This subdivision shall not apply in any class action under Section 382 of the Code of Civil Procedure or under Section 1781, or with respect to a claim based solely on a breach of an implied warranty.
      • If the buyer prevails in an action under this section, the buyer shall be allowed by the court to recover as part of the judgment a sum equal to the aggregate amount of costs and expenses, including attorney's fees based on actual time expended, determined by the court to have been reasonably incurred by the buyer in connection with the commencement and prosecution of such action.
        • Except as otherwise provided in this subdivision, if the buyer establishes a violation of paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2, the buyer shall recover damages and reasonable attorney's fees and costs, and may recover a civil penalty of up to two times the amount of damages.
        • If the manufacturer maintains a qualified third-party dispute resolution process which substantially complies with Section 1793.22, the manufacturer shall not be liable for any civil penalty pursuant to this subdivision.
        • After the occurrence of the events giving rise to the presumption established in subdivision (b) of Section 1793.22, the buyer may serve upon the manufacturer a written notice requesting that the manufacturer comply with paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2. If the buyer fails to serve the notice, the manufacturer shall not be liable for a civil penalty pursuant to this subdivision.
        • If the buyer serves the notice described in paragraph (3) and the manufacturer complies with paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 1793.2 within 30 days of the service of that notice, the manufacturer shall not be liable for a civil penalty pursuant to this subdivision.
        • If the buyer recovers a civil penalty under subdivision (c), the buyer may not also recover a civil penalty under this subdivision for the same violation.

      California Lemon Law 1794.1.

      • Any retail seller of consumer goods injured by the willful or repeated violation of the provisions of this chapter may bring an action for the recovery of damages. Judgment may be entered for three times the amount at which the actual damages are assessed plus reasonable attorney fees.
      • Any independent serviceman of consumer goods injured by the willful or repeated violation of the provisions of this chapter may bring an action for the recovery of damages. Judgment may be entered for three times the amount at which the actual damages are assessed plus reasonable attorney fees.

      California Lemon Law 1794.3. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any defect or nonconformity in consumer goods caused by the unauthorized or unreasonable use of the goods following sale.

      California Lemon Law 1794.4.

      • Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent the sale of a service contract to the buyer in addition to or in lieu of an express warranty if that contract fully and conspicuously discloses in simple and readily understood language the terms, conditions, and exclusions of that contract, provided that nothing in this section shall apply to a home protection contract issued by a home protection company that is subject to Part 7 (commencing with Section 12740) of Division 2 of the Insurance Code.
      • Except as otherwise expressly provided in the service contract, every service contract shall obligate the service contractor to provide to the buyer of the product all of the services and functional parts that may be necessary to maintain proper operation of the entire product under normal operation and service for the duration of the service contract and without additional charge.
      • The service contract shall contain all of the following items of information:
        • A clear description and identification of the covered product.
        • The point in time or event when the term of the service contract commences, and its duration measured by elapsed time or an objective measure of use.
        • If the enforceability of the service contract is limited to the original buyer or is limited to persons other than every consumer owner of the covered product during the term of the service contract, a description of the limits on transfer or assignment of the service contract.
        • A statement of the general obligation of the service contractor in the same language set forth in subdivision (b), with equally clear and conspicuous statements of the following:
          • Any services, parts, characteristics, components, properties, defects, malfunctions, causes, conditions, repairs, or remedies that are excluded from the scope of the service contract.
          • Any other limits on the application of the language in subdivision (b) such as a limit on the total number of service calls.
          • Any additional services that the service contractor will provide.
          • Whether the obligation of the service contractor includes preventive maintenance and, if so, the nature and frequency of the preventive maintenance that the service contractor will provide.
          • Whether the buyer has an obligation to provide preventive maintenance or perform any other obligations and, if so, the nature and frequency of the preventive maintenance and of any other obligations, and the consequences of any noncompliance.
        • A step-by-step explanation of the procedure that the buyer should follow in order to obtain performance of any obligation under the service contract including the following:
          • The full legal and business name of the service contractor.
          • The mailing address of the service contractor.
          • The persons or class of persons that are authorized to perform service.
          • The name or title and address of any agent, employee, or department of the service contractor that is responsible for the performance of any obligations.
          • The method of giving notice to the service contractor of the need for service.
          • Whether in-home service is provided or, if not, whether the costs of transporting the product, for service or repairs will be paid by the service contractor.
          • If the product must be transported to the service contractor, either the place where the product may be delivered for service or repairs or a toll-free telephone number that the buyer may call to obtain that information.
          • All other steps that the buyer must take to obtain service.
          • All fees, charges, and other costs that the buyer must pay to obtain service
        • An explanation of the steps that the service contractor will take to carry out its obligations under the service contract.
        • A description of any right to cancel the contract if the buyer returns the product or the product is sold, lost, stolen, or destroyed, or, if there is no right to cancel or the right to cancel is limited, a statement of the fact.
        • Information respecting the availability of any informal dispute settlement process.
      • Subdivisions (b) and (c) are applicable to service contracts on new or used home appliances and home electronic products entered into on or after July 1, 1989. They are applicable to service contracts on all other new or used products entered into on and after July 1, 1991.
      • This section shall become operative on January 1, 2008.

      California Lemon Law 1794.41.

      • No service contract covering any motor vehicle, home appliance or home electronic product purchased for use in this state may be offered for sale or sold unless all of the following elements exist:
        • The contract shall contain the disclosures specified in Section 1794.4 and shall disclose in the manner described in that section the buyer's cancellation and refund rights provided by this section.
        • The contract shall be available for inspection by the buyer prior to purchase and either the contract, or a brochure which specifically describes the terms, conditions, and exclusions of the contract, and the provisions of this section relating to contract delivery, cancellation, and refund, shall be delivered to the buyer at or before the time of purchase of the contract. Within 60 days after the date of purchase, the contract itself shall be delivered to the buyer. If a service contract for a home appliance or a home electronic product is sold by means of a telephone solicitation, the seller may elect to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph by mailing or delivering the contract to the buyer not later than 30 days after the date of the sale of the contract.
        • The contract is applicable only to items, costs, and time periods not covered by the express warranty. However, a service contract may run concurrently with or overlap an express warranty if
          • the contract covers items or costs not covered by the express warranty or
          • the contract provides relief to the purchaser not available under the express warranty, such as automatic replacement of a product where the express warranty only provides for repair.
        • The contract shall be cancelable by the purchaser under the following conditions:
          • Unless the contract provides for a longer period, within the first 60 days after receipt of the contract, or with respect to a contract covering a used motor vehicle without manufacturer warranties, a home appliance, or a home electronic product, within the first 30 days after receipt of the contract, the full amount paid shall be refunded by the seller to the purchaser if the purchaser provides a written notice of cancellation to the person specified in the contract, and if no claims have been made against the contract. If a claim has been made against the contract either within the first 60 days after receipt of the contract, or with respect to a used motor vehicle without manufacturer warranties, home appliance, or home electronic product, within the first 30 days after receipt of the contract, a pro rata refund, based on either elapsed time or an objective measure of use, such as mileage or the retail value of any service performed, at the seller's option as indicated in the contract, shall be made by the seller to the purchaser if the purchaser provides a written notice of cancellation to the person specified in the contract.
          • Unless the contract provides for a longer period for obtaining a full refund, after the first 60 days after receipt of the contract, or with respect to a contract covering a used motor vehicle without manufacturer warranties, a home appliance, or a home electronic product, after the first 30 days after the receipt of the contract, a pro rata refund, based on either elapsed time or an objective measure of use, such as mileage or the retail value of any service performed, at the seller's option as indicated in the contract, shall be made by the seller to the purchaser if the purchaser provides a written notice of cancellation to the person specified in the contract. In addition, the seller may assess a cancellation or administrative fee, not to exceed 10 percent of the price of the service contract or twenty-five dollars ($25), whichever is less.
          • If the purchase of the service contract was financed, the seller may make the refund payable to the purchaser, the assignee, or lender of record, or both. (b) Nothing in this section shall apply to a home protection plan that is issued by a home protection company which is subject to Part 7 (commencing with Section 12740) of Division 2 of the Insurance Code. (c) The amendments to this section made at the 1988 portion of the 1987-88 Regular Session of the Legislature that extend the application of this section to service contracts on home appliances and home electronic products shall become operative on July 1, 1989.
          • If any provision of this section conflicts with any provision of Part 8 (commencing with Section 12800) of Division 2 of the Insurance Code, the provision of the Insurance Code shall apply instead of this section.

      California Lemon Law 1794.5. The provisions of this chapter shall not preclude a manufacturer making express warranties from suggesting methods of effecting service and repair, in accordance with the terms and conditions of the express warranties, other than those required by this chapter.

      California Lemon Law 1795. If express warranties are made by persons other than the manufacturer of the goods, the obligation of the person making such warranties shall be the same as that imposed on the manufacturer under this chapter.

      California Lemon Law 1795.1. This chapter shall apply to any equipment or mechanical, electrical, or thermal component of a system designed to heat, cool or otherwise condition air, but, with that exception, shall not apply to the system as a whole where such a system becomes a fixed part of a structure.

      California Lemon Law 1795.4.
      For the purposes of this chapter only, the following rules apply to leases of both new and used consumer goods:

      • If express warranties are regularly furnished to purchasers of substantially the same kind of goods, (1) those warranties will be deemed to apply to the leased goods and (2) the lessor and lessee shall each be deemed to be the first purchaser of the goods for the purpose of any warranty provision limiting warranty benefits to the original purchaser.
      • The lessee of goods has the same rights under this chapter against the manufacturer and any person making express warranties that the lessee would have had under this chapter if the goods had been purchased by the lessee, and the manufacturer and any person making express warranties have the same duties and obligations under this chapter with respect to the goods that such manufacturer and other person would have had under this chapter if the goods had been sold to the lessee.
      • If a lessor leases goods to a lessee from the lessor's inventory, the lessee has the same rights under this chapter against the lessor that the lessee would have had if the goods had been purchased by the lessee, and the lessor has the same duties and obligations under this chapter with respect to the goods that the lessor would have had under this chapter if the goods had been sold to the lessee. For purposes of this section, "inventory" shall include both goods in the lessor's possession prior to negotiation of the lease and goods ordered from another party in order to lease those goods to the lessee where the lessor is a dealer in goods of that type.
      • If a lessor leases goods to a lessee which the lessor acquires other than from the lessor's inventory, the lessee has the same rights under this chapter against the seller of the goods to the lessor that the lessee would have had under this chapter if the goods had been purchased by the lessee from the seller, and the seller of the goods to the lessor has the same duties and obligations under this chapter with respect to the goods that the seller would have had under this chapter if the goods had been purchased by the lessee from the seller.
      • A lessor who re-leases goods to a new lessee and does not retake possession of the goods prior to consummation of the re-lease may, notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1793, disclaim as to that lessee any and all warranties created by this chapter by conspicuously disclosing in the lease that these warranties are disclaimed.
      • A lessor who has obligations to the lessee with relation to warranties in connection with a lease of goods and the seller of goods to a lessor have the same rights and remedies against the manufacturer and any person making express warranties that a seller of the goods would have had if the seller had sold the goods to the lessee.

      California Lemon Law 1795.5. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (a) of Section 1791 defining consumer goods to mean "new" goods, the obligation of a distributor or retail seller of used consumer goods in a sale in which an express warranty is given shall be the same as that imposed on manufacturers under this chapter except:

      • It shall be the obligation of the distributor or retail seller making express warranties with respect to used consumer goods (and not the original manufacturer, distributor, or retail seller making express warranties with respect to such goods when new) to maintain sufficient service and repair facilities within this state to carry out the terms of such express warranties.
      • The provisions of Section 1793.5 shall not apply to the sale of used consumer goods sold in this state.
      • The duration of the implied warranty of merchantability and where present the implied warranty of fitness with respect to used consumer goods sold in this state, where the sale is accompanied by an express warranty, shall be coextensive in duration with an express warranty which accompanies the consumer goods, provided the duration of the express warranty is reasonable, but in no event shall such implied warranties have a duration of less than 30 days nor more than three months following the sale of used consumer goods to a retail buyer. Where no duration for an express warranty is stated with respect to such goods, or parts thereof, the duration of the implied warranties shall be the maximum period prescribed above.
      • The obligation of the distributor or retail seller who makes express warranties with respect to used goods that are sold in this state, shall extend to the sale of all such used goods, regardless of when such goods may have been manufactured.

      California Lemon Law 1795.6.

      • Every warranty period relating to an implied or express warranty accompanying a sale or consignment for sale of consumer goods selling for fifty dollars ($50) or more shall automatically be tolled for the period from the date upon which the buyer either (1) delivers nonconforming goods to the manufacturer or seller for warranty repairs or service or (2), pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1793.2 or Section 1793.22, notifies the manufacturer or seller of the nonconformity of the goods up to, and including, the date upon which (1) the repaired or serviced goods are delivered to the buyer, (2) the buyer is notified the goods are repaired or serviced and are available for the buyer's possession or (3) the buyer is notified that repairs or service is completed, if repairs or service is made at the buyer's residence.
      • Notwithstanding the date or conditions set for the expiration of the warranty period, such warranty period shall not be deemed expired if either or both of the following situations occur: (1) after the buyer has satisfied the requirements of subdivision (a), the warranty repairs or service has not been performed due to delays caused by circumstances beyond the control of the buyer or (2) the warranty repairs or service performed upon the nonconforming goods did not remedy the nonconformity for which such repairs or service was performed and the buyer notified the manufacturer or seller of this failure within 60 days after the repairs or service was completed. When the warranty repairs or service has been performed so as to remedy the nonconformity, the warranty period shall expire in accordance with its terms, including any extension to the warranty period for warranty repairs or service.
      • For purposes of this section only, "manufacturer" includes the manufacturer's service or repair facility.
      • Every manufacturer or seller of consumer goods selling for fifty dollars ($50) or more shall provide a receipt to the buyer showing the date of purchase. Every manufacturer or seller performing warranty repairs or service on the goods shall provide to the buyer a work order or receipt with the date of return and either the date the buyer was notified that the goods were repaired or serviced or, where applicable, the date the goods were shipped or delivered to the buyer.

      California Lemon Law 1795.7. Whenever a warranty, express or implied, is tolled pursuant to Section 1795.6 as a result of repairs or service performed by any retail seller, the warranty shall be extended with regard to the liability of the manufacturer to a retail seller pursuant to law. In such event, the manufacturer shall be liable in accordance with the provisions of Section 1793.5 for the period that an express warranty has been extended by virtue of Section 1795.6 to every retail seller who incurs obligations in giving effect to such express warranty. The manufacturer shall also be liable to every retail seller for the period that an implied warranty has been extended by virtue of Section 1795.6, in the same manner as he would be liable under Section 1793.5 for an express warranty. If a manufacturer provides for warranty repairs and service through its own service and repair facilities and through independent repair facilities in the state, its exclusive liability pursuant to this section shall be to such facilities.

      California Lemon Law 1795.8.

      Notwithstanding any other provision of law, this chapter shall apply to a purchase in the United States of a motor vehicle, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 1793.22, with a manufacturer's express warranty by a member of the Armed Forces regardless of in which state his or her motor vehicle is purchased or registered, if both of the following apply:

      • The member of the Armed Forces purchases a motor vehicle, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (e) of Section 1793.22, with a manufacturer's express warranty from a manufacturer who sells motor vehicles in this state or from an agent or representative of that manufacturer.
      • The member of the Armed Forces was stationed in or a resident of this state at the time he or she purchased the motor vehicle or at the time he or she filed an action pursuant to this chapter.

      The Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act

      The Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act is a Federal Law that protects the buyer of any product which costs more than $25 and comes with an express written warranty. This law applies to any product that you buy that does not perform as it should.

      Your car is a major investment, rationalized by the peace of mind that flows from its expected dependability and safety. Accordingly, you are entitled to expect an automobile properly constructed and regulated to provide reasonably safe, trouble-free, and dependable transportation – regardless of the exact make and model you bought. Unfortunately, sometimes these principles do not hold true and defects arise in automobiles. Although one defect is not actionable, repeated defects are as there exists a generally accepted rule that unsuccessful repair efforts render the warrantor liable. Simply put, there comes a time when “enough is enough” – when after having to take your car into the shop for repairs an inordinate number of times and experiencing all of the attendant inconvenience, you are entitled to say, ‘That’s all,’ and revoke, notwithstanding the seller’s repeated good faith efforts to fix the car. The rationale behind these basic principles is clear: once your faith in the vehicle is shaken, the vehicle loses its real value to you and becomes an instrument whose integrity is impaired and whose operation is fraught with apprehension. The question thus becomes when is “enough”?

      As you know, enough is never enough from your warrantor’s point of view and you should simply continue to have your defective vehicle repaired – time and time again. However, you are not required to allow a warrantor to tinker with your vehicle indefinitely in the hope that it may eventually be fixed. Rather, you are entitled to expect your vehicle to be repaired within a reasonable opportunity. To this end, both the federal Moss Warranty Act, and the various state “lemon laws,” require repairs to your vehicle be performed within a reasonable opportunity.

      Under the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, a warrantor should perform adequate repairs in at least two, and possibly three, attempts to correct a particular defect. Further, the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act’s reasonableness requirement applies to your vehicle as a whole rather than to each individual defect that arises. Although most of the Lemon Laws vary from state to state, each individual law usually require a warrantor to cure a specific defect within four to five attempts or the automobile as a whole within thirty days. If the warrantor fails to meet this obligation, most of the lemon laws provide for a full refund or new replacement vehicle. Further, this reasonable number of attempts/reasonable opportunity standard, whether it be that of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act or that of the Lemon Laws, is akin to strict liability – once this threshold has been met, the continued existence of a defect is irrelevant and you are still entitled to relief.

      One of the most important parts of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act is its fee shifting provision. This provision provides that you may recover the attorney fees incurred in the prosecution of your case if you are successful – independent of how much you actually win. That rational behind this fee shifting provision is to twofold: (1) to ensure you will be able to vindicate your rights without having to expend large sums on attorney's fees and (2) because automobile manufacturers are able to write off all expenses of defense as a legitimate business expense, whereas you, the average consumer, obviously does not have that kind of economic staying power. Most of the Lemon Laws contain similar fee shifting provisions.

      You may also derive additional warranty rights from the Uniform Commercial Code; however, the Code does not allow you in most states to recover your attorney fees and is also not as consumer friendly as the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act or the various state lemon laws.

      The narrative information on Magnuson-Moss, UCC and lemon laws on these pages is provided by Marshall Meyers, attorney.


      Uniform Commercial Code Summary

      The Uniform Commercial Code or UCC has been enacted in all 50 states and some of the territories of the United States. It is the primary source of law in all contracts dealing with the sale of products. The TARR refers to Tender, Acceptance, Rejection, Revocation and applies to different aspects of the consumer's "relationship" with the purchased goods.

      TENDER - The tender provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code contained in Section2-601 provide that the buyer is entitled to reject any goods that fail in any respect to conform to the contract. Unfortunately, new cars are often technically complex and their innermost workings are beyond the understanding of the average new car buyer. The buyer, therefore, does not know whether the goods are then conforming.

      ACCEPTANCE - The new car buyer accepts the goods believing and expecting that the manufacturer will repair any problem he has with the goods under the warranty.

      REJECTION - The new car buyer may discover a problem with the vehicle within the first few miles of his purchase. This would allow the new car buyer to reject the goods. If the new car buyer discovers a defect in the car within a reasonable time to inspect the vehicle, he may reject the vehicle. This period is not defined. On the one hand, the buyer must be given a reasonable time to inspect and that reasonable time to inspect will be held as an acceptance of the vehicle. The Courts will decide this reasonable time to inspect based on the knowledge and experience of the buyer, the difficulty in discovering the defect, and the opportunity to discover the defect.
      The following is an example of a case of rejection: Mr. Zabriskie purchase a new 1966 Chevrolet Biscayne. After picking up the car on Friday evening, while en route to his home 2.5 miles away, and within 7/10ths of a mile from the dealership, the car stalled and stalled again within 15 feet. Thereafter, the car would only drive in low gear. The buyer rejected the vehicle and stopped payment on his check. The dealer contended that the buyer could not reject the car because he had driven it around the block and that was his reasonable opportunity to inspect. The New Jersey Court said;

      To the layman, the complicated mechanisms of today's automobile are a complete mystery. To have the automobile inspected by someone with sufficient expertise to disassemble the vehicle in order the discover latent defects before the contract is signed, is assuredly impossible and highly impractical. Consequently, the first few miles of driving become even more significant to the excited new car buyer. This is the buyer's first reasonable opportunity to enjoy his new vehicle to see if it conforms to what it was represented to be and whether he is getting what he bargained for. How long the buyer may drive the new car under the guise of inspection of new goods is not an issue in the present case because 7/10th of a mile is clearly within the ambit of a reasonable opportunity to inspect. Zabriskie Chevrolet, Inc. v. Smith, 240 A. 2d 195(1968)

      It is suggested that Courts will tend to excuse use by consumers if possible.

      REVOCATION - What happens when the consumer has used the new car for a lengthy period of time? This is the typical lemon car case. The UCC provides that a buyer may revoke his acceptance of goods whose non-conformity substantially impairs the value of the goods to him when he has accepted the goods without discovery of a non-conformity because it was difficult to discover or if he was assured that non-conformities would be repaired. Of course, the average new car buyer does not learn of the nonconformity until hundreds of thousands of miles later. And because quality is job one, and manufacturers are competing on the basis of their warranties, the consumer always is assured that any noncomformities he does discover will be remedied. What is a noncomformity substantially impairing the value of the vehicle?

      • A noncomformity may include a number of relatively minor defects whose cumulative total adds up to a substantial impairment. This is the "Shake Faith" Doctrine first stated in the Zabrisikie case. "For a majority of people the purchase of a new car is a major investment, rationalized by the peace of mind that flows from its dependability and safety. Once their faith is shaken, the vehicle loses not only its real value in their eyes, but becomes an instrument whose integrity is substantially impaired and whose operation is fraught with apprehension".
      • A substantial noncomformity may include a failure or refusal to repair the goods under the warranty. In Durfee V. Rod Baxter Imports, the Minnesota Court held that the Saab owner that was plagued by a series of of annoying minor defects and stalling, which were never repaired after a number of attempts, could revoke, "if repairs are not successfully undertaken within a reasonable time", the consumer may elect to revoke.
      • Substantial Non Conformity and Lemon Laws often define what may be considered a substantial impairment. These definitions have been successfully used to flesh out the substantial impairment in the UCC.

      Additional narrative information on Magnusson-Moss, UCC and lemon laws on these pages is provided by T. Michael Flinn, attorney.